Carlos Cruz-Diez

Born in 1923 - France


Carlos Cruz Diez was born in Caracas, Venezuela, in 1923. He lives and works in Paris. He is one of the major figures of kinetic and optical art and has received numerous awards for his work. His practice positions him as a contemporary theorist of color. His visual research, based on three chromatic conditions -- subtractive color, additive color and reflection -- has contributed to a new approach of the color phenomenon by expanding his perceptual universe.

Carlos Cruz-Diez has based his practice on the color as an autonomous reality, without any anecdote, evolving in real time and real space without any help from the form or the support. There are eight axes of research that reveal the different behaviors of color: Additive Color, Physichromie, Chromatic Induction, Chromointerference, Transchromia, Chromosaturation, Chromoscope and Color in Space.

In 1940, Carlos Cruz Diez was studying at the Art School in Caracas. In 1944, he was working as a graphic designer for the "Creole Petroleum Corporation". In 1946, he became the Creative Director of the advertising agency "McCann-Erickson in Venezuela. In 1957, he founded the "Estudio Artes Visuales" dedicated to graphic and industrial design. In 1959, he completed his first work entitled “Additive Color and Physiochromia".

In 2005, his family created the "Cruz-Diez Foundation" dedicated to the conservation, development, dissemination and research of the artist’s conceptual heritage. Between 1972 and 1973, he taught "Kinetic Techniques" at the Beaux-Arts School in Paris. In 2012, he was appointed Officiel the National Order of the Legion of Honour.

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"Dynamo. Un siècle de lumière et de mouvement dans l’art", Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris, (France)
"Carlos Cruz-Diez. Circumstance and Ambiguity of Color", Musée de l’Académie des Beaux-Arts, Beijing, (China)
"La Invención Concreta: Colección Patricia Phelps de Cisneros", Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, (Spain)
"Light Show, Hayward Gallery", London, (UK)

"Carlos Cruz-Diez: El color en el espacio y en el tiempo", Museo Universitario Arte Contemporáneo, Mexico, (Mexico)
"Carlos Cruz-Diez: A cor no espaço e no tempo, Pinacoteca do estado", Sao Paulo, (Brazil)

"Carlos Cruz-Diez: Color in Space and Time", musée des beaux-arts, Houston, (USA)

"Environment Chromatic-Interferences: Interactive Space by Carlos Cruz-Diez", Guangdong Museum of Art, Guangzhou, (China)
"Carlos Cruz Diez: The Embodied Experience of Color", Miami Art Museum, Miami, (USA)

"Carlos Cruz-Diez: El color sucede", Museu d’Art Espanyol Contemporani, Palma de Mallorca, (Spain)

"In(formed) by Color, The Americas Society", New York, (USA)
"Museum of Fine Arts", Houston, (USA)

"Lo(s) Cinético(s)", Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, (Spain)

"Inverted Utopias: Avant-garde Art in Latin America", musée des beaux-arts, Houston, (USA)

"Une Tour Eiffel haute en couleurs", Centre Pompidou, Paris, (France)

"Carlos Cruz-Diez: Die Autonomie der Farbe", Josef Albers Museum, Bottrop, (Germany)

"Cruz-Diez: Didáctica y dialéctica del color. Intervenciones en la arquitectura", Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, Caracas, (Cuba)

Pavillon du Venezuela, XXXVe Biennale de Venise, (Italy)

"Cruz-Diez: Cinq propositions sur la couleur", Galerie Denise René, Paris, (France)

"Lumière et Mouvement", musée d'art moderne de la ville de Paris, (Paris)

"The Responsive Eye", Museum of Modern Art, New York, (USA)

"Mouvement 2", Galerie Denise René, Paris, (France)

"Bewogen Beweging (El Movimiento)", Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, (Netherlands)

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