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Photographers

A photographer is a person who creates an image of the world using a camera. Given that nowadays, everyone takes photographs with their smartphones, it is necessary to distinguish this mass flow of images from the work of fine art photographers who have an artistic intention and aim to create original artworks.



Thus we consider an fine art photograph to be a work that is created with artistic intention and includes a reflection on ideas and technique. Art photography must be an original work by an artist who recognises their role in the creation by signing their name. The concept of an original work is also linked to the limited edition. Generally, the fewer copies are made, the higher the price of each photograph.



All the photographic processes are based on two fundamental requirements, first of all the ability to capture an image and then capacity to fix image onto a support, rendering it visible. It took a lot of experimentation in order achieve this. The very first photograph dates from 1826 and was taken by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce. This photograph shows an image of his house and it took ten hours of exposure time to capture it. It was over ten years until the first photograph representing a human being was taken in 1838. It is an image of the Pont Neuf in Paris on which we can distinguish two passerbys. This photograph is the work of a former student of Nicéphore Niépce: Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre. Daguerre gave his name to a new technique which consists of fixing a negative image onto a silver plate: the daguerreotype.



The next major breakthroughs were the replacement of the glass plate with dry gel on paper or film which allowed for a wider diffusion of photography and the appearance of colour photography at the beginning of the 20th century. All these techniques can be grouped together under the term analog photography. In the mid 20th century the invention of digital photography revolutionised the medium. It was a technical and artistic revolution, photographers could now see on a screen the image they had just captured and could adjust their shots accordingly and they could also take advantage of the infinite possibilities offered by computer retouching.



Photography is often broken down and classified into different groups including: fashion photography, nude photography, conceptual photography, colour photography, black and white photography, street art photography, and so on.



Some of the greatest photographers in history include: Robert Mapplethorpe, Li Wei, Bert Stern, Robert Doisneau, Henri Cartier Bresson, Vivian Maier, Philippe Ramette, Bernard Pras, Steve McCurry, Richard Avedon, David LaChapelle, Annie Leibovitz, Helmut Newton and Martin Parr.

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JR

France

Bert Stern

United States

Liu Bolin

China

Clet Abraham

Italy

Helmut Newton

Germany

Christo and Jeanne-Claude

Bulgaria

Philippe Pasqua

France

Gottfried Salzmann

Austria

Slim Aarons

United States

Hassan Hajjaj

Morocco

Bernard Pras

France

Emanuele Ravagnani

Italy

Yevgeniy Repiashenko

Ukraine

Larry Clark

United States

Thomas Ruff

Germany

Patrick Rubinstein

France

Andy Warhol

United States

Man Ray

United States

Nobuyoshi Araki

Japan

Ralph Gibson

United States

Li Wei

China

Horst P. Horst

Germany

Vik Muniz

Brazil

Richard Heeps

United Kingdom

Karl Lagasse

France

Samsofy

France

Françoise Dugourd-Caput

Algeria

Willy Ronis

France

Chema Madoz

Spain

Grzegorz Sikorski

Poland

Maurice Renoma

France

Robert Mapplethorpe

United States

Sumit Mehndiratta

India

Fabien Novarino

France

Dina Goldstein

Israel

David LaChapelle

United States

James Sparshatt

United Kingdom

Feng Hatat

China

Diane Arbus

United States

Sven Pfrommer

Germany

Charlotte Abramow

Belgium

Cy Twombly

United States

David Lynch

United States

Elliott Erwitt

United States

Philippe Ramette

France

Marilyn Minter

United States

Walker Evans

United States

Roger Ballen

South Africa

Miguel Winograd

Colombia

Miles Aldridge

United Kingdom

Robert Longo

United States

Lionel le Jeune

France

Annie Leibovitz

United States

Feng Kaixuan

China

Mehdi Mirbagheri

Iran

Barry Cawston

United Kingdom

Herb Ritts

United States

Andres Serrano

United States

Erwin Blumenfeld

Germany

Martin Parr

United Kingdom