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Sculptors

A sculptor is an someone who creates sculptures. The broad term 'sculptor' does not only apply to artists, it can also be used in non-artistic contexts. For example, it may refer to someone working on a restoration site or creating replicas of existing sculptures. For a sculptor to also be defined as an artist, there needs to be a sense of artistic intention behind the objects they create. This person can be a professional or an amateur.



Sculpture is considered a major artistic discipline in the same way as painting. Some sculptors only work in the medium of sculpture while other artists have a multidisciplinary approach.



A sculptor seeks to create three-dimensional shapes out of one or several media. Sculptors can choose from a variety of materials for their sculptures. Some of the most frequently used media include stone (marble, granite etc), concrete, cement, wood and clay (which is used to create terracotta sculptures). Artists can also use metal to create sculptures, bronze has historically been the most commonly used but nowadays, sculptors can also choose aluminum or even steel.



Contemporary practices and technical developments have led to a growing diversity of materials being available for sculptors to use. Contemporary sculpture therefore uses a wider range of materials than modern sculpture did. Nowadays, it is not uncommon to see artworks made of resin, glass or an combination of several different materials. ARtists may also use new technologies such as 3D printers to help them create works.



Over the course of the history of sculpture, there have been a many different types of sculptures and artists have developed numerous techniques for creating three dimensional works.



In relief sculpture, the sculpted form stays attached to the background made of the same material. If the carving is shallow then the work is referred to as a bas-relief. If there is some undercutting and more of 50% of the depth is shown, the work is sculptured in high relief.



If a sculpture is described as in the round or free-standing, it means that the work is detached from the background, in the majority of cases this means that the viewer to walk around it and admire it from all angles.



A key basic distinction is sculpture is the contrast between modelling and carving. Modeling is an additive technique which creates forms by adding more material. This is more flexible for sculptors as they can generally add or subtract the material as they please, for example as they would when using clay. Carving is a subtractive method; the sculptor removes material from a solid block of material,for example wood or marble, to reveal the desired shape.



Some of the greatest artists in the history of sculpture include: Michelangelo, Antoine-Louis Barye, Rembrandt Bugatti, Camille Claudel, Auguste Rodin, Alberto Giacometti, Louise Bourgeois, Cesar, Arman, Anish Kapoor, Anselm Kiefer, Jeff Koons, Yayoi Kusama, Richard Orlinski and Christophe Charbonnel.

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